There's one piece of career advice I'd give someone is this: aim to work in a fast growing company in a fast growing industry and look for a good manager to take you under their wing.
If you do some or all of these, the future will take care of itself.
A growing company
A fast growing company will always offer more opportunity. As the organisation increases in size, new positions are created and if you are good at what you do, you can be considered for promotion sooner.
A growing industry
A fast growing industry offers up yet more opportunity because if you are good at what you do, you will be in demand from other companies in your sector. If your company doesn't present opportunities to develop, others might come knocking on your door.
A good manager
If you work with a good manager who is good at their job, when they get promoted, they will need someone to fill their old job or be on their new team. You'll learn from them along the way and they will give you responsibility if you deserve it.
With fast growing companies, fast growing industries and with good managers you can learn more, faster.
However, none of this matters unless you are useful. If you can do something well that other people are not able or prepared to do, you will be useful.
Some career paths are slow and steady walks, some are fast runs, some can be rocket ships. If speed is your thing, try find a rocket ship with a good pilot and get on board.